Easter With Five of Our Grandkids

Yesterday, my husband Jay and I spent Easter Sunday in Romeo, Michigan with our daughter’s family. We had a really good time, getting to see the older grandkids, for the first time since Thanksgiving! Nathan is the oldest and he will be twenty one in two weeks. Nate is happily married and both he and his wife Shauni, are working towards a career, at this time. He will soon become a licensed aircraft mechanic, the exact route that his father chose. While Shauni is taking classes towards a degree, to eventually become an R.N. I’m so proud of these kids, with both of them holding down a full-time job, also. They will someday become, two very fine adults!:)
Photo: compliments of morguefile.com

How to Create a 6th Edition APA Header in Microsoft Word 2016

Although you might know exactly what an APA header is supposed to look like, you may not know how to get MS Word 2016 to help you set it up properly

Never fear! There’s a rhyme and a reason, as well as a simple step-by-step method.

Why Do I Need a Running Head?

The purpose of a running head is to help a reader quickly identify each page of a paper as being part of the same paper. It’s a very useful bit of information for publication editors or university professors who might receive several papers a day. A reader might be interrupted several times while reading and might need a quick reminder about the paper’s topic when he or she sits back down to read some more. Or imagine, for example, a person having fifty papers on his or her desk and a strong breeze blowing through and scattering them across the floor. The running head of a paper will make sure the editor or professor can put the paper together, again.

What Does a Running Head Look Like?

On the title page, the first page of the paper, the left-aligned words “Running head,” followed by a colon, appear before a shortened title of the paper. The page number, “1” appears at the right margin on the same line. On the second page and all of the following pages of the paper, the words “Running head” do not appear, but the same left-aligned, shortened title, does appear. The shortened title of the paper, both on the title page and subsequent pages, is always in all caps. The margins in the header are one inch on both sides, and the font for the running head and page number is always Times New Roman, in twelve point font.

How Do I Create a Running Head in MS Word 2016?

Although setting up a 6th Edition APA running head seems complicated, it can be completed properly in only a few steps. If you follow these steps in order, setting up the running head will be a breeze.

  • First, it’s easiest to set-up your page from the “Print Layout” view. Click the “View” tab and the “Print Layout” button.
  • Then, be sure you choose to view the ruler by choosing the “View” tab and “Show/Hide” ruler.
  • From the “Print Layout,” place your cursor in the header area of the page, and double click. That opens your “Header and Footer” “Design Tools” menu.
  • From the Header and Footer Design Tools menu, click on “Different First Page” in the “Options” area. Your cursor will stay in the header.
  • Next, type “Running head: YOUR SHORTENED TITLE.” Make sure the shortened title part of the running head is in all caps.
  • On the keyboard, type the tab key twice. Word 2016 has a default that will place your cursor on the right margin if you tab twice. Check the position on the ruler.
  • Click “Insert,” click “Page number,” “Current Position” and “Plain.” Don’t be tempted to change the order of these steps!
  • If the header does not have a 1” margin, set your page margins in the “Page Layout” menu.
  • If your default font is not set for Times New Roman 12, highlight everything in your header and use your font options in the “Home” tab to set your font and font size.
  • After you complete your title page, you can set up your second page running head by repeating these steps. Just remember, only include the words “Running head” on the very first page, the title page.

Brave Frontier Starter Tips

1. What is Brave Frontier?
Venture forth into “Grand Gaia”, the world of the gods, and unleash your summoner powers to save it from corruption and darkness in this immersive and addictive RPG saga!
* Summon and form the most powerful squad from more than 200 legendary heroes and ancient beasts, mastering their elemental strengths of fire, water, nature, lightning, light and darkness!
* Engage with beautiful pixel-crafted units and intensely animated battles! Storm the arena and raise the ranks! Cut down your opponents and become the most powerful summoner of all!
* Upgrade and harvest resource fields in town for synthesising potions and equipment!

2. Where can i download this game and what device is it for?
– This game is for IOS devices and can be downloaded in canadian appstore.
– You need to create a new itunes account if your account has different country, when you create a new account change the country to “CANADA”

3. Where to find evolution materials?
*Fire, Water, Earth,Thunder, Light, Dark Nymphs
– Mistral (Example: Fire Nymph can be found at “Fire Stage” of Mistral map and so forth…) Or Enchanted paradise event every tuesday.
*Fire, Water, Earth, Thunder, Light, Dark Spirits
– Morgan (Example: Fire Spirit can be found at “Fire Stage” of Morgan map and so forth…) Or Enchanted paradise event every tuesday.
*Fire, Water, Earth, Thunder, Light, Dark Idols
– St. Lamia (Example: Fire Idol can be found at “Fire Stage” of St. Lamia map and so forth…) Or Enchanted paradise event every tuesday.
*Fire, Water, Earth, Thunder, Light, Dark Totems
– Thursday event via vortex gate. (Light and dark totems randomly appears in any quest during oasis of the gods event.)

4. Where to capture rare cards in this game?
– You CANT capture 3 stars card above in this game but you can capture some good units that can evolve into super rare units ill point out where you can find them :
*Zephu – St. Lamias water stage “Sacred Mt. Craylia” last quest. He will respawn as a normal enemy.
*Mifune – St. Lamias dark stage “Cave Of Malice” last quest. He will respawn as a normal enemy.
*Beast Zegar – St. Lamias fire stage “Volcano Eldent” last quest. He will respawn as a normal enemy.
*Archer Lario – St. Lamias earth stage “Blood Forest” last quest. He will respawn as a normal enemy.
*Advisor Weiss – St. Lamias thunder stage “Mt. Wistorea” last quest. He will respawn as a normal enemy.
*Luna – St. Lamias light stage “Secluded Sanctuary” last quest. She will respawn as a normal enemy.

5. How to level up Brave Burst? (Credits to a japanese site haha dont know the authors name)
– Brave burst is divided into 3 types Attack System (Offensive type) , Recovery System (Healer or regen type) and Auxiliary System (Buffer Type).
– You need to fuse according to their type so BB will level up (Ex. Zephu (Attack System) will be fused to Fencer Vargas (Attack System) same goes to other Brave Burst Type.
Additional info -> If level of brave burst goes up this will happen:
– If the attack system, damage of Brave burst goes up. The ones that grant the state probability anomaly, given the probability goes up.
– If the recovery system, recovery amount of Brave burst goes up.
– If the auxiliary system, strengthening the value of the attack and defense power will rise.
6. What is Anima, Guardian, Oracle, Breaker, Lord and REX?
This is different types of units:
You can see what your unit type is, just above the lvl bar. Unit type is random generated per card, so it’s pure luck on what types you get. There are 5 different types affecting your unit growth status per level.
(Anima) – Higher hp, lower hp recovery
(Breaker) – Higher attack, lower defence
(Lord) – Normal growth, no bonus nor demerit
(Guardian) – Lower attack, higher defence
(Oracle) – Lower hp, higher hp recovery
(Rex) – Not sure what stats it gives but this is the highest stats ive ever seen.

7. What is Spark?
*One of the interesting factor in this game. Spark occurs when more 1 unit hits the enemy on the same time frame, dealing 1.5x damage extra. It also boosts items, crystal, money and soul drop. If you time your unit right, enemies can be brought down more easily.
*Factors affecting spark are unit attacking speed, number of hits the unit has and the distance between enemy.The more hits your unit has, the more easier for you to time spark damage.

8. What is Overkill ?
*Overkill occurs in enemy HP becomes 0, the addition of further attacks. Because you drop the battle crystal with high probability to be carried out over a kill it is effective when you want to collect the Battle Crystal.

9. What is the weekly events schedule?
Monday – Congregation of Souls (For gathering karma)
Tuesday – Enchanted Paradise (For gathering evolution materials nymphs, spirits and idols.)
Wednesday – Cave of Desires (For getting mimics and bad mimics card which can be used as exp card or evolve materials.)
Thursday – Oasis of the gods (For gathering material cards for 5 star evolution.)
Friday – Hostile Relics (For gathering materials for item and sphere crafting.)
Weekends – The Golden Vault (For farming gold.)

The Rules of Citations in Geography Essays: M.L.A. Style

Learn the accepted M.L.A. way for acknowledging sources in written essays and reports: Special reference to geography-type essays.

This guide reflects the geographic way of doing things. It includes information on plagiarism, the proper format for acknowledging secondary sources used in the writing of papers, and questions for review. The guide focuses on print material but as the University of Chicago’s Turabian Citation Guide points out, “online sources that are analogous to print sources (such as articles published in online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print counterparts but with the addition of a URL and an access date.”


If a writer borrows another writer’s words or ideas without properly acknowledging the source, the writer is guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is, then, the intentional (or unintentional) copying of words or ideas from another source without acknowledging the source.

To be more specific, the writer of a formal research paper must document the source of any borrowed (Hacker 169) information which the writer uses in the paper. Borrowed information is considered to be any quotation, summary or paraphrase from a source used in the writing of a paper, as well as any reference to facts or ideas that are new to the writer, or that are not common knowledge.

The way to document this information is by means of a system of parenthetical references (169) within the paper known as text citations. (169) These citations refer the reader of the paper to a list of ‘”works cited” (169) which will appear at the end of the paper.


  • Why is a reference given in one case as (Hacker 169) and in another case as simply (169)?
  • What is the test for when to document?

Acknowledgement of Sources the MLA Way

Three key terms are prominent in the M.L.A. style of acknowledging sources:

  • a signal phrase is used to introduce an idea, word, phrase etc. that is borrowed from a source. e.g. In a recent book by Charles Francis…
  • a parenthetical citation or reference appears after the quotation, summary or paraphrase and should include at least the page number and sometimes the author’s name. e.g. (Francis 18)
  • works cited is the page set aside at the end of the paper on which the writer lists alphabetically by author’s last name all sources used in the paper, not just those from which words, ideas, etc. have been borrowed.

Sample Works Cited:

  • Davidson, Malcolm, “India’s population growth continues to surge.” Kitchener-Waterloo Record. 24 June, 1989: A7
  • Newberry, Lillian. “China’s births up in country, down in city survey shows.” The Toronto Star. 9 March, 1988: A6

There are three main ways to borrow information from another source: quotations, summary, and paraphrase.

Copying Exact Words

Quotations refer to the copying of the exact words of another author for the sole purpose of enhancing one’s own work. Quotations should not be used to speak for the writer, but rather to qualify what the writer has already said.


  • use your own notes to qualify what one of your own sources has already said about your topic. Acknowledge source in correct M.L.A. style.

Condensing and/or Capsulizing

“A summary condenses information from a source, perhaps capsulizing a chapter into a short paragraph or a paragraph into a single sentence.” (Hacker 170) However, any key words used in the summary must be acknowledged.


  • use your own notes to summarize a paragraph from one of your own sources into a single sentence. Acknowledge source in correct M.L.A. style.

Using Roughly the Same Number of Words in Your Own Words

“A paraphrase reports information in roughly the same number of words used by the source.” (Hacker 170) It must be emphasized again that one must not borrow extensively the exact language from a source but instead must use his or her own vocabulary.


  • use your own notes to paraphrase a short piece of information borrowed from a source that is the same number of words but in your own vocabulary. Acknowledge source in correct M.L.A. style.

Examples of Proper Citations in M.L.A. Style

Following are nine incidents and examples of proper citations followed by a series of questions:

(1) Author in Signal Phrase, Page Number in Parenthesis:

Normally the writer should introduce the material being borrowed with a signal phrase that includes the author’s name. This serves as an introduction to the quotation and also keeps the information within the parenthesis to a minimum. (Hacker 176)

For example:

  • Jonathan Mirsky reports that China’s “past attempts to lower the number of people in their country have failed and higher taxes on children and special incentives for one child families are currently in place”. (27) The signal phrase ‘Johnathan Mirsky reports’ states the author’s name and leads the reader to the Works Cited at the end of the paper. The parenthetical citation (27) gives the page number where the quotation may be found.

(2) Author and Page Number in Parenthesis:

The author’s surname appears in parenthesis with the page number reference only if it has not appeared in the signal phrase.

(3) A Title in Parenthesis:

The title of a work cited need not appear in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation unless:

  • the writer has used two or more sources from the same author
  • two authors with the same surname appear in the Works Cited

For example:

  • Title in Signal Phrase- In Rainforests, Lois Warburton reports…
  • Title in Parenthesis- Lois Warburton reports ….faster than any other ecosystem.” (Rainforests 49)
  • Author’s Name and Title in Parenthesis- Although the baby chimpanzee lived for only a few hours, Washoe signed to it before it died. (Davis Eloquent 42)


  • In order to avoid repeating the same method or signal phrase, what are four variations that you can suggest? e.g. In the words of …

(4) Two or Three Authors of a Single Work

Name all authors in the signal phrase or include their last names in the parenthetical citation along with the page number, in the order they appear on the title of the source.

For example:

  • Krueger, Corder and Koegler agree that tropical forests are home to more than eighty percent of the earth’s plant and animal species (357).

(5) More Than Three Authors:

Name only the first author’s surname followed by ‘et al’ which, in Latin means ‘and others’. Put this either in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation.

For example:

  • The study was extended for two years, and only after results were duplicated on both coasts did the authors publish their results (Doe et al 137)

(6) Corporate Author:

This means that no single author’s name appears on the title page but rather a corporation’s name appears. Use the corporate name either in the signal phrase or the parenthetical expression.

For example:

  • The Ministry of the Environment warns that …(5)

(7) Unknown Author:

Use the complete title of the work in the signal phrase or a shortened version of the title with the page reference in the parenthetical citation.

For example:

  • The UFO reported by the crew of a Japan Airlines flight remains a mystery. Radar tapes did not confirm the presence of another craft. (“Strange Encounter” 26)

(8) Indirect Source:

When a writer’s quoted words appear in a source written by another author, as in a letter to the editor, the parenthetical citation will begin with the abbreviation ‘qtd. in’.

For example:

  • Malthus did not believe in birth control, in fact he referred to it as a “vice”. (qtd. in Fagan 23)


  • Find an indirect quote in a textbook or reference book that relates to your inquiry and provide the indirect quote with proper parenthetical citation.

(9) Parenthetical Citation of two or More Works:

If the writer has found two authors with the same idea and wishes to use their ideas to support his or her thesis, both authors should be cited in the parenthetical citation.

Use of Footnotes or End-notes in M.L.A. Style

When a writer uses the M.L.A. style of acknowledging sources used in a paper, footnotes or end-notes in the traditional sense are not used. The only two exceptions are as follows:

  • to provide additional information that might interrupt the flow of thought in a paper, yet is important enough to include;
  • to refer the reader to sources not included in the list of works cited.

The distinction between footnotes and end-notes is that footnotes appear at the bottom of the page while end-notes appear at the end of the paper just before works cited page.

To use either type of notes, number them consecutively throughout the paper by using a raised Arabic numeral at the end of the quotation or reference that corresponds to the number of the note.


  • Suggest information that could be included in your essay as a footnote or end-note.

List of Works Cited in M.L.A. Way

There are five rules to remember in the general setting up of the Works Cited page:

  • the heading for the page should read Works Cited and should be centered but not underlined;
  • the Works Cited is the last page of the paper;
  • the Works Cited page begins at the top of a new page and is numbered consecutively with the text of the paper;
  • sources are generally listed in alphabetical order by the surnames of the authors or editors;
  • entries are not numbered.

There are four rules to remember in the specific setting up of Works Cited page. These are demonstrated by a portion of an actual Works Cited page from an essay on Overpopulation in China and India.

Rule #1:

  • If there is no author or editor’s name given, alphabetize by the first word of the title excepting the words a, an, or the.

For example:

  • “Baby girls victims of China’s birth control policy.” The Globe and Mail. 21 June, 1982; 13.

Rule #2:

  • The date to use in the entry is the latest copyright date.

For example:

  • Broderbund. PC Globe 1992.

Rule #3:

  • The author’s name appears at the margin; the remaining parts of the entry are indented.

Rule #4:

  • Generally, information in a works cited entry is divided into parts, each separated by a period.

For example:

  • Ehrlich, Paul and Anne Ehrlich. “Population, plenty, and poverty.” National Geographic. Dec. 1988.

In a geographic essay, the following types of ‘works cited’ entries are common:

  • McCann, L.D., ed. Heartland and Hinterland: A Geography of Canada. Scarborough. Prentice Hall. 1987. (editors)
  • Burton, Robert. “Elephants.” The New Funk and Wagnalis Illustrated Wildlife Encyclopedia. 1980 ed. (Encyclopedia or Dictionary)
  • Environment Canada. Climate Change Digest. Downsview ON. Canadian Climate Center. 1993. (Government Publication)
  • Lionel, Wayne. “Abortions popular as Birth Control.” Japan Times Weekly 15 June 1992: 43 (Weekly Magazine Article)
  • Geographic Skills. Dir. John Doe. TVO, 1992 (Films and Television Programs)
  • PC Globe. Computer Software. Broderbund, 1992. IBM, disk. (Computer Software)


  • Gibaldi, Joseph, and Walter S. Achtert. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 3rd ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009.
  • Hacker, Diana. A Canadian Writer’s Reference. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford. St. Martin’s 2004.
  • Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 4th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Expanding English Vocabulary Using the Present Participle

The present participle form of English verbs is among the most versatile in the language. Using this form expands the writer’s vocabulary and versatility.

Look up any verb in a good dictionary, and you will see in the entry the participial forms of that verb: both the past participle form and the present. Knowing these forms of the verbs instantly adds to one’s vocabulary and fluency. Present participles also enable the English user to talk about an activity.

Forming the Present Participle

The present participle of all English verbs is formed by adding the suffix -ing. The only complication is spelling: what to add or delete before adding the -ing. The dictionary will tell you. But in brief, here are the spelling patterns for adding the suffix, -ing.

  • If the verb ends in the letter ‘e’ drop the ‘e’ and then add ‘ing.’ Examples: complete-completing relate – relating dance-dancing invite – inviting
  • If the verb is one syllable and is a consonant-vowel-consonant (cvc) syllable, double the final consonant and then add ‘-ing. Examples: chop – chopping wrap – wrapping sit – sitting cut – cutting
  • If the word is a cvvc word, do NOT double the last consonant. Examples: meet – meeting seat – seating repeat – repeating bait – baiting
  • If the word has more than one syllable, and the stress does NOT fall on the final syllable, do NOT double the final consonant. Examples: benefit – benefiting travel – traveling counsel – counseling

The Present Participle as Adjective

The present participle is often used as an adjective, in front of a noun. Often, these participles describe something that causes a feeling. Consider this passage:

The children went to an amusement park. They went on many exciting rides, including a huge roller-coaster. The thrilling rides made them scream and laugh. The laughing children enjoyed their day at the amusement park. Only one disappointing thing happened: they didn’t have enough money to go on all the rides.

The present participle often follows a linking verb. In this case, the participle describes the subject (becomes a predicate adjective). Consider the following revision of the preceding example:

The children went to an amusement park. The rides were exciting and thrilling. However, the children didn’t have enough money to go on every exciting ride at the park. That was disappointing.

The Present Participle as Subject

Present participles can also be used as nouns, and therefore as the subject of a sentence. This usage comes in handy when one is trying to write or talk about an activity. Read the following passages:

Raising children requires patience and confidence. Knowing when to firmly say “no” to a child without anger creates safe boundaries and limits. Giving in to every demand or desire of a child can spoil the child, and fails to teach healthy boundaries. Sometimes, saying ‘yes’ is easier, but doing so might not benefit the child in the long term.

Exercising, as we all know, is essential to health and fitness. But we all have to find the particular form of exercise we enjoy enough to do on a regular basis. For some people, dancing satisfies that requirement. For people who prefer to be outdoors, hiking and bicycling are more satisfying forms of exercise. Whatever form it takes, exercising regularly provides many benefits.

Present Participle as Part of a Verb

And finally, of course, the present participle can be used as part of a verb, specifically the verbs in the progressive tense. The Progressive Tense is composed of two parts: the helper verb To Be, plus the participle. By itself, a present participle is not a verb, and cannot be a verb.

Examples of the progressive tense:

Sarah is eating. (Present progressive tense)

Alan was eating. (Past progressive tense)

Sylvia will be eating. (Future progressive tense)

Practice Using Participles

To increase sentence fluency and versatility, practice using the participle in various ways. Making mistakes is to be expected: Sometimes the present participle cannot be used as a subject, or its use as an adjective may be inappropriate or improper. Only by trying out various uses of present participles will the English learner discover when to use this versatile word form.


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